On Cairnes's methodology, see John Elliott Cairnes, The Character and Logical Method of Political Economy (2nd ed., London: Macmillan, 1875); and Murray N. Rothbard, Individualism and Philosophy of the Social Sciences (1973; San Francisco: Cato Institute, 1979), pp. 49–50, On Cairnes and the Australian gold controversy, see Crauford D. Goodwin, ‘British Economists and Australian Gold’, Journal of Economic History, 30 (June 1970), pp. 405–26; and Frank W. Fetter, Development of British Monetary Orthodoxy, 1797–1875 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1965), pp. 240–9.
On the rise of William Whewell and the Baconian inductivists, see N.B. de Marchi and R.P. Sturges, ‘Malthus and Ricardo's Inductivist Critics: Four Letters to William Whewell’, Economica, n.s. 40 (Nov. 1973), pp. 379–93; I. Bernard Cohen, Revolution in Science (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1985), p 528; and S.G. Checkland, ‘The Advent of Academic Economics in England’, The Manchester School of Economic and Social Studies, 19 (Jan. 1951), pp. 59–66.